This chapter deals with two evil and wicked personalities and their activities in the end times. These two personalities are human: for they possess physical bodies, and are therefore able to function in this physical world. However, they are not alone: behind them is a third personality, Satan, the god of this age. These three persons constitute the satanic trinity. We have pointed out earlier that Satan mimicks God: for he said, I will be like the Most High…(is.14:14). So, whatever God does, he tries very hard to copy. But unlike the Divine Trinity, there is no equality involved here: Satan is the supreme leader; the two other personalities, the First and Second Beasts are only his subalterns and minions. In the Divine Trinity, the three persons of the Godhead, The Father, The Son and The Holy Spirit are of the same substance and coequal but choose to submit to one another. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus The Christ said, My Father is greater than I. And again I and My Father are one. This a mytery: the Father is greater than the Son, yet they are one in substance and coequal. In the satanic Trinity, Satan is the supreme leader. I shall not proceed further with this comparison. This is just to give us an idea of the copycat that is Satan.
The First Beast:Verse 1-10
(1) “And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.”
John the revelator stands on the sand of the sea, and sees a beast rise up out of the sea. Although the sea signifies the mass of people, it could also stand for the underworld of the dead. In that case, this may be an indication the first beast comes out of the underworld of the dead, a different mass of people so to say.
Dr. Marvin J. Rosenthal believes the sea here refers to the Gentiles. In that case the antiChrist will be a Gentile. This assumption cannot be biblically substantiated. As matter of fact, it contradicts the Scripture. For the antiChrist to be acceptable to the Jews as the Messiah of Israel, he must have Jewish blood. One of the appellatives of the antiChrist is “Another.” Based on Christ’s statement in John 5:43, am inclined to believe that the antiChrist will be of Jewish ancestry
“I am come in my Father’s name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.”(John 5:43 KJV).
A Gentile CANNOT be the Messiah of Israel. The antiChrist will claim to be the true Messiah of Israel. For the Jews to accept him as the Messiah, he must have Jewish ancestry. The Jews cannot accept a Gentile as their Messiah. So, it is doubtful whether the antiMessiah is a Gentile. Considering other factors, he may probably be a mongrel Jew. In that case, one cannot categorically state that he will be a Gentile.
“The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken; according to all that thou desiredst of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not. And the LORD said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.”(Deut.18:15-19 KJV).
But the antiChrist is an imposter. Therefore he shall be a Samaritan. A Samaritan is a mongrel Jew, a Jew of mixed blood. He is also Gog of the land of Magog(Ezek.38:2,3). Therefore he will be a Jew of mixed blood. That should not be difficult to understand inasmuch as Jews are scattered all over the world. The Jews accused Jesus of being a Samaritan and having a demon. By that they meant He was a pseudomessiah, the antiChrist. But Jesus was not a Samaritan neither did He have a demon.
“Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil? Jesus answered, I have not a devil; but I honour my Father, and ye do dishonour me. And I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth. Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death.”(John 8:48-51 KJV).
The revelator is among the living. But he sees a beast come out of the underworld of the dead. Like his father and mentor, who had taught him in the underworld, the dragon in the previous chapter, he bears seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and in addition to that, upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
In Middle Eastern culture, kings are synonymous with their kingdoms. The context sometimes distinguishes between the two. At other time the phenomenon of double reference may be implied which obviously is the case in this context. Therefore, the Eighth And Final Beast Empire is a composite Beast Empire with all the characteristics of the seven previous Beast Empires. We have enumerated these seven Beast Empires in the previous chapter. Inspite of having all the characteristics of the seven previous Beast Empires, this Eighth And Final Beast Empire consists of ten horns. We have earlier stated that horns symbolize powers. Therefore, the Eighth And Final Beast Empire consists of ten nations or better still ten peoples groups.
That these horns have crowns indicate their rulers are sitting kings, contemporaneous. We shall enumerate these nations or peoples groups later on. One thing is obvious, all these horns owe allegiance to The Beast who is the overall head and absolute ruler, or more appropriately the Emperor of this beast Empire. The Beast-King or better still Beast-antiChrist, like the Beast-Nation over which he reigns is a composite personality with characteristics of the most prominent of the emperors of the seven Beast Nations. These emperors were the worst and impacted Israel negatively. On his head, are the names of blasphemy: this phrase indicates that unlike Israel, a theocracy, which these nations have persecuted throughout history, these nation were idolatrous.
As nations, they never believed in the God of Israel and they never worshipped Him, but rather were blasphemous of Him and persecuted His people whom He had chosen. They were Gentile Nations and had no allegiance to The God of Israel. However, that did not mean that there were no individuals amongst them that knew the God of Israel. These nations were the exact opposite of Israel. Their gods were idols, their temples were dedicated to idols, their priests were priests of idols. They were satanists, they blasphemed the God of Heaven: hence the names of blasphemy.
(2) “And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.”
This composite and nondescript beast is like a leopard, the Greek Empire and the worst of its kings, Antiochus IV Epiphanes or Antiochus theo Epiphanes, Antiochus god made manifest, who persecuted the Jews, and is a prefigure of the antiChrist. The feet were like those of a bear, the Medopersian Empire and the worst of its kings who persecuted Jews in exile. And his mouth as the mouth of a lion: the Babylonian Empire and its worst king, Nebuchadnezzar II who took Israel into exile in Babylon. We see here that three of the ten nations that constitute the Eighth And Final Beast Empire are mentioned: Greece, Medopersia and Babylon. The nondescript beast itself and its own kingdom are one, i.e., Rome. The others are named in the book of the prophet Ezekiel, viz: Magog, Meshech, Tuval [Rome], Cush (Ethiopia in The KJV, but more appropriately Sudan), Phut(Put or Libya), Gomer and Togarmah(Turkey, Azerbaijan). In Ezekiel 38:1-6, the Beast himself is referred to as Gog who is the head of Magog from whom came the ancestors and founders of Rome. We shall delve more into this when we study the beast empires.
And the dragon gave him his power, and his seat and great authority. After his expulsion from Heaven Satan indwells the Beast-antiChrist. He empowers him: he gives him his power, his seat and great authority. This exchange with Satan and the resultant transformation occur precisely in the middle of the 70th seven of Daniel’s 70 Seven prophecy. At this point, the Beast suffers from a sever mental disorder called Political Megalomania. He has a psychiatric problem, but he does not know it. Indeed, he is more than a psychiatric case, it is political ‘Galomania. He becomes a dictator, a political demagogue. He proclaims himself to be God and demands worship of all mortals. And the Great Tribulation begins. This event coincides with the 4th seal of Rev.6:7-8.
(3) “And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.”
In verse 3 one of the seven heads of the Beast was wounded or slain to death. This means that the man died. But his deadly wound was healed, which means he came back to life. And all the world wondered after the beast. We can imagine what it would look like for the world to understand that this world leader is a dead man come back to life. This man lived in time past and ruled over one of the seven previous Beast Empires. He was slain to death with a military weapon in battle. Now he is revived to rule over the Eighth And Final Beast Empire. It is not only that this man is a dead man come back to life, his kingdom also is revived. We have pointed out earlier that this man would remain incognito and unrecognized as a dead man come back to life until the middle of the 70th seven of Daniel when he is unveiled, when he makes his debut at the rebuilt Jewish Temple on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. Who would be willing to oppose such a man? I wonder! Only believers, Jews and a few nonconformist nuts. Nevertheless, believers will not be able to kill him. Only our King Jesus, the true Messiah shall be able to kill him.
(4) “And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?”
In verse 4, the effect of this realization on the world is that the mass of humanity will follow him out of fear. They go after him straightaway as an ox to the correction of the stocks. They worshipped the Dragon who gave power to the Beast: and they worshipped the Beast, saying, who is like unto the Beast? Who is able to make war with him? We have established that Satan rules by proxy. When the Beast is worshipped, Satan is worshipped also. So these Beast-marked worshippers of the Dragon-Beast are satanists. Jesus said, he who receives me received Him who sent me(Matt.10:40). When we worship Jesus, we worship God the Father also . Similarly those who worship the antiChrist worship his master the Devil. Why do the world worship the Dragon and the Beast? Because they cannot make war with the Beast. Why is it that they cannot make war with him? Because they don’t have what it takes. To resist the Beast-antiChrist one must have The Father, Son and The Holy Spirit. It requires strength beyond oneself. He is a dead man come back to life. He is too powerful for the world to handle. He is a man alright, but not an ordinary man. He is humanoid.
(5) “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.”
In verse 5 a mouth is given him to speak great things and blasphemies against God. This man shall seek to change times and seasons and utter blasphemous words against the God of Heaven. Dan.11:36-39 gives us further insight into the carrier of the infamous and notorious Beast-antiChrist. We shall delve more into this when we look in depth at this man in our study of eschatology. Whatever this man does, he will not exceed his allotted time of forty and two months or three and one half years.
(6) “And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.”
Verse 6 tells us that this man’s blasphemy is against The God of Heaven and His abode or tabernacle and those who dwell in Heaven. He knows who God is and His angels. He had lived in Heaven before. He is a fallen angel who was booted out of Heaven alongside his Master, Satan when they revolted against God in Eternity Past.
(7) “And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.”
Verse 7 tells us that power was given him to make war with the saints and to overcome them. This is the great tribulation which begins precisely at the breaking of the 4th seal of the scroll of Revalation 6:8. The breaking of the fourth seal occurs precisely at the midpoint of the 70th week of Daniel. The Great Tribulation will be amputated by the cosmic disturbance of Rev 6:12. Except those days were shortened, there shall no flesh be saved(Matt.24:22). But for the elect sake those days shall be shortened. What is shortened is the great tribulation not the forty and two months allotted to the Beast-antiChrist to reign and two witnesses to prophesy. Power was also given him over all kindred and tongues(languages, peoples) and nations. He shall have worldwide influence.
(8) “And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.”
Verse 8 tells us those who shall worship this man are those whose names are written in the scroll of life of the lamb slain from the foundation of the world. These were not saved by the blood of the lamb. Here we see that Jesus was chosen by God to die in atonement for the sin of humanity before the foundation of the world.
(9) “If any man have an ear, let him hear.”
Verse 9 tells us to pay attention to what is written. The words are particularly reassuring and comforting here in verse 10.
(10) “He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.”
The KJV translation is not particularly helpful here. A better translation would be: “if any man is destined to go into captivity, into captivity he goes: and if any man is destined to be killed with sword, with the sword, he shall be killed. Here is the patience and faith of the saints.” These are like the fifth seal martyrs under the altar(Rev.6:9-11).
“Wait until your brethren who should be killed like you were killed should be fulfilled.”
The patience and faith of the saints lies in the fact that those who should be killed would be killed and those who are to go into captivity, into captivity they go. So there is no need for us to be overly fearful; for what will happen will happen according to the will, plan, and purpose of God. If we take the sense of the KJV translation here, what it means is that eventually God will turn the table on the antiChrist and his followers. He and his followers shall be taken captive and killed at Armageddon. The statement, “he that killeth with sword shall be killed with the sword, and he that leadeth captivity shall go into captivity,” is a Hebrew idiom that means, “moral decay demands divine judgment.” Overripe fruit is in a state of decay: it cannot be eaten, it must be discarded.
The Second Beast or The False Prophet: Verse 11-18
“And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.”
Here in verse 11 the revelator saw another beast, but unlike the first Beast, the second Beast came out of the Earth, another part of the underworld of the dead. Inasmuch as the Earth was formed from the sea, it is probable that the second Beast’s emergence from the Earth implies a subordinate role of the second Beast to the beast first. [Marvin J. Rosenthal believes land here may refer to Israel, which if true means the false prophet may be a Jew]. This is indeed the case as the second Beast has only two horns though he spoke as a dragon. Though he has two horns, he bears no crown. Therefore, though he has some form of authority which stems from the horns, his is not a sitting and reigning king in the class of the first Beast or in the the class of any of the ten horns of the First Beast. In other words he does not rule over any nation. He is not a reigning king. That he spoke as dragon implies he is not the dragon but that his power derives from and is subordinate to the dragon who is the actual and invisible ruler or the god of this age.
As we have pointed out earlier, the Dragon is the head of the satanic Trinity, but because he is invisible, he reigns by proxy through his minions, the First and Second Beasts, the Beast-antiChrist and the False Prophet. He has horns like a lamb. Remember Jesus is the Lamb Of God who taketh away the sin of the world(John 1:29). We have earlier established Satan is a copycat. He has his own lamb in the person of the Second Beast who will establish a false religion which will lead the world to the worship of a false god, Satan. So the Second Beast is a religious leader. Jesus the True Lamb of The One True God established The True Religion through His Apostles, based on His finished works on the Cross of Calvary, but the Second Beast will establish a false religion that will mislead the world to the worship of a False god, Satan.
(12) “And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.”
In verse 12, the Second Beast receives all the power and annoiting of the First Beast, his superior, for the sole purpose of misleading the living wicked earth-dwellers to worship the First Beast who is a dead man come back to life. In verse 3, The Dragon, Satan emptied himself into the First Beast, giving him his power, his seat and great authority for the sole purpose of his being his earthly representative; in the same vein, the First Beast reproduces himself in the Second Beast in order that he may represent him where he could not be. Neither Satan nor his subordinates are omnipresent. Omnipresence is the prerogative of the three persons of the Godhead. However, there is a phenomenon called “demonic expansion” which Satan and his minions could use to give the false appearance and impression of being in different places at the same time. This is not the same as omnipresence. Therefore the Second Beast, the False Prophet is his enforcer. Just as Jesus the good Shepherd has an army of under shepherds, the False Prophet has an army of false prophets under his command to carry out the programme of the Beast-antiChrist.
True Christianity is the worship of the one True God, but in Satanism, there are many gods. Satan is the author of idolatry, polytheism and pantheism: they worshipped the Dragon who gave power to the Beast, and they worshipped the Beast(Rev.13:4). In this one world religion to be established by the False Prophet, there will be many false christs(Matt.24:5) and many false prophets(Matt.24:11). But all these shall be subordinate to the ultimate antiChrist and the ultimate false prophet who in turn are subordinate to Satan, The Dragon. Satan is not bothered by the confusion created by the multiplicity of religions. He is the author of it all and it serves his purpose. Men can believe they or anything else is God. They can worship anyone or anything but the one true God, Satan is satisfied. When anyone or anything other than the one true God of Israel is worshiped, Satan is worshipped and glorified. Idolatry is falsehood. It is lies. And Satan is the author and father of lies(Jon.8:44).
(13,14) “And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.”
Apart from the fact that the First Beast is a dead man come back to life, the inhabitants of the Earth have also to grapple with the fact that the Second Beast performs miracles and signs and wonders which do not appear fake, but genuine. “He maketh Fire come down from heaven in the sight of men.”(13). By means of these outstanding miracles, he is able to hoodwink the living wicked earth-dwellers into making an image to the First Beast who had a wound by the sword and did live. It is a given that anyone with outstanding powers to perform miracles will win and attract followers, considering the fact that the mass of humanity are gullible.
The images of the First Beast were made of wood, stone, bronze, silver and gold, every man according to what he could afford. These images in the likeness of the Beast were to be worshipped. Rev.9: 20 says they worshipped demons and idols. How did they do that. Through these images. Though these images were made of inanimate materials like wood, stone, bronze, silver and gold which neither can see, hear, talk nor walk, they were indwelt by demons. In my own part of the world, initiated images, masks and idols that can be harmful to or even kill the uninitiate are not new at all. There was a brother known to me who was studying Fine Arts at the University at the time of this incident. He travelled to particular city in the south of Nigeria with his wife. On their way back, they bought a mask. Unbeknownst to them, the mask was initiated. Every night he was severely weeped until a minister identified the mask as the source of the oppression. As soon as it was removed, the oppression ceased. Masks, images and idols though inanimate can be indwelt by demons.
By worshipping the demons in the statues of the beast, they worship the Dragon. The demons indwelling the images are subordinates of Satan. The false prophets hoodwinked the wicked earth-dwellers to commit mass idolatry. Individuals will have demonized images of the beast, made of these materials we have enumerated to keep in their homes as evidence of their allegiance to the Beast-antiChrist. When God shall begin to pour out His wrath on the living wicked earth-dwellers, adorers and worshippers of the Dragon-Beast, they shall throw always these idols or images of the beast to the moles and to bats to seek non-existent refuge in the caves and rocks of the mountains.
“And the idols He shall utterly abolish.”
“And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, and the caves of the earth, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of His majesty, when He ariseth to shake terribly the earth. In that day a man shall cast away his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they have made. Each for himself to worship, to the moles and to the bats; to go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the top of the ragged rocks, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of His majesty, when He ariseth to shake terribly the earth”(Is.2:18-21).
“Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens”(Jer.10:11).
(15,16) “And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:”
Besides the little images of the Beast that people have in their homes, cars, and offices, there are enlivened images of the beast in public places for passers-by to worship. The enforcer is the one who enlivens the statues of the Beast. He gives them power both to speak and to cause as many passers-by who refuse to bow to these images of the Beast should be killed. This is not unlike the days of the Roman Empire, when Emperor worship was practised. Citizens were required to offer a pinch of insence to the statue of Caesar at the city square as sign of allegiance. Those who refused were arrested, prosecuted, and blackballed out of business.
Before these images can do their work effectively, the enforcer will cause everyone, rich or poor, small or great, free and slave, to receive a mark on their forehead or right arm. These marks will enable these these publically displayed enlivened images of the beast to identify those who do not have the mark of the beast and to cause them to be killed. What are these enlivened images of the Beast? They are probably robocops equipped with AI and NFC to identify those who have not the mark of the beast. Artificial Intelligence has empowered our generation to send unmanned aerial vehicles to Outer Space, use drones to gather intelligence and in targeted killings. There are authomated driverless cars and robots which perform countless chores in industries and homes.
I had dialogues with two of my brethren in the Lord, friends and protégés, in private telephone conversations, on computer programmes and AI. What both of them said are quite interesting and enlightening. I posed each of them this question in private dialogue. How could a combination of numbers 0-9 produce intelligence? Austine Agbasi, a reverend gentleman and a businessman said “computer programmes are demonic incantations.” Kola Arimoro who happens to be an IT specialist, said “in AI, there is what is called fuzzy logic, and they give nod to the supernatural by such terms as daemons and wizards.” My conclusion is that there are more to computers and AI than meet the unaided eye. Elon Musk says “by AI we are summoning the demon.” What does he mean by that? With AI, the world is inviting the antiChrist.
The other question we should ask ourselves is what is the mark of the beast? There was a time when it would be too wide a guess to answer this question, but not today. In animal husbandry when a pig farrowed, the piglets are chipped to identify them and monitor their growth and age. The chip as a seal is a sign of ownership, authenticity, identity, security and for protection. The reason why the antiChrist wants his mark on everyone is to say I own everyone, I protect everyone and everyone owes allegiance to me. Jesus, you have no subjects or followers here, so get out. That would not be because there are believers who will not take the mark of the beast and unbelievers who also will reject it for ideological reasons. India have a national ID programme. Nigeria of all nations in the world have launched electronic ID called NIN which would be used to withdraw money from the bank. Sweden have begun to implant microchips on its citizens. The first woman to be chipped boasted, “I am the first swede to be chipped.”
(7) “And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.”
In verse 17, it is written: “that no man might buy or sell save him that have the mark of the beast or the number of his name.” The world is progressively moving towards a cashless society. In Sweden over 95% of transactions are cashless. Most bank transfers are cashless. The world would one day, in no distant a future go cashless. Why would the antiChrist horde food? The breaking of the first three seals of Rev.6 will lead to war, famine, pestilence and earthquakes. These factors can cause severe economic crisis and lead to severe dearth and extreme scarcity of food, goods and services. There probably would be agricultural and economic boom prior to the 70th seven of Daniel’s 70 sevens prophecy. With the advancement in modern technology, genetically modified food(GMO), new species with increased yield, improvement in livestock farming, the world may one day have plenty for everyone to eat.
Scientists have found out that one-fourth of the ice free surface of the Earth can support a population of 40 billion people. The antiChrist being the smart Alec that he is would stockpile food in the days of plenty which he would use as a bagaining chip in time of scarcity. Not unlike in the days of Joseph in Egypt: seven years of plenty was followed by seven years of famine and scarcity. If one does not have the mark of the beast or the numbers of his name, one cannot buy or sell because every transaction is electronic. We can imagine what it would be like for those who have not adequately prepared for this situation. What one purchases online is delivered at one’s door by robots and drones. All transactions will be monitored electronically.
(18) “Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.”
We simply call this number 666, but in actuality it is a computer bar code consisting of 18 digits. This number on a microchip alongside other biometric data specific to the individual shall be implanted on the forehead or right or left arm. Whatever is the case, whether the antiChrist is here or not, believers should not accept any form of biometric implants into any part of their body for whatever reason. It is not by force. Satan is not dumb. He knows if it is forcefully implanted, it would not count. But it can be done by coercion. We must not be hoodwinked into accepting the mark. If anyone takes the mark, the one is doomed for eternity; for the wrath of God abides on the one for ever.
“And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name. Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” ( Rev.14:9-12 ).
Amen. If anyone takes the mark of the Beast, the one shall be banished to Hell. If anyone takes the mark of the Beast, the one is doomed for eternity. If anyone is branded with mark of allegiance to the Beast, the one has sinned beyond repentance. If anyone takes the mark of the Beast, the fate of the one is sealed for eternity. He is unrapturable and ungovernable by God.